A national fuel surcharge is an extra fee that trucking companies (or third parties) charge to cover the fluctuating cost of fuel. It is calculated as a percentage of the base rate and is usually added to a shipper’s freight bill to cover the cost of operations. The fuel surcharge depends on the average fuel price and can be different for each shipper or industry, depending on the fuel cost to revenue ratio. It covers additional fuel costs and keeps carriers profitable, even when the cost of fuel rises.
There is no uniform way of calculating fuel taxes as companies use their own formula. Most carriers have information on how they determine the fuel overcharge on their website. For example, UPS uses an index-based surcharge that is adjusted monthly and is based on the National U.S. Average On-Highway Diesel Fuel Price as reported by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).
The relevant national fuel average can be tracked on the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) website. Currently, the UPS average fuel surcharge is 8% for ground and 6.75% for domestic air.
How to calculate fuel surcharge? National fuel surcharge calculation formula:
$2.50 – $1.20 = $1.30
$1.30/6 = $0.22
This way, if a load travels 600 miles, the shipper can expect to pay a $132 fuel tax amount. Another, less popular method of calculating is based on a percentage from load price. For example, if a surcharge is at 20%, then a $500 load would have a surcharge of $100.
No federal administration regulates a fuel surcharge policy. Each shipper and carrier individually negotiate and set the policy in contracts. There is a vast space for fraud – there are no legal requirements to control passing collected fuel taxes from a shipper to a person who actually pays for fuel for the shipper’s load. The carrier may have stated a flat surcharge for their drivers, but much higher surcharge prices for shippers – so they could pocket the difference. Shippers should know that surcharge money will actually be passed to drivers.
Obviously, fuel is one of the highest expenses for a carrier, together with drivers’ pay. Using a surcharge supports negotiation on long-term contracts, where base rates remain the same and the fuel surcharge acts as security from short-term fuel price fluctuations. Sometimes, it’s worth using higher fuel mileage than your fleet’s average, for example, choosing 6.25 mpg instead of 6.00 mpg. This gives carriers a competitive advantage in attracting shippers.
Remember, most carriers are ready to negotiate a fuel tax level. If you are able to pay a higher overall rate, it is possible for carriers to decrease or even eliminate the surcharge. It is always good to have options, especially when diesel fuel prices go up and increase surcharge rates. Develop a market fuel surcharge program —third parties, like a 3PL, are excellent sources for this information because they typically deploy many programs.
If you want to get expert assistance in dealing with fuel rates, contact us!